Fueth went into the match without a win in five league games and that run looked set to continue when Roberto Firmino opened the scoring on eight minutes.
However, Zoltan Steiber equalised six minutes before half-time.
Joselu restored the hosts' advantage after 67 minutes before Edgar Prib drew Fuerth level with little over five minutes remaining at the Rhein-Neckar-Arena.
And with the match drawing to a close, Joselu netted his brace with what seemed to be the match-winning goal in the 89th minute.
But substitute Lasse Sobiech, who had only been on the pitch for five minutes, headed home from close range with virtually the last kick of the game as the visitors claimed a remarkable point.
The result sees Hoffenheim move to eight points, while Furth have five points after eight games and remain in the relegation zone.