FK Dukla Praha, known internationally as Dukla Prague, was first established in 1958. Initially operating under the name FK Dukla Dejvice, the club took on its current name in 2001. Previously, another team called Dukla Praha had existed in the Czech Republic and played in the country until 1996, before a merger led to the foundation of 1. FK Příbram. Therefore, the current Dukla Praha team is not a legal or direct successor to that original side.
For many years, the club played its football in the lower divisions of both Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. As recently as 2006, Dukla Praha were playing in the country's fifth tier, the Prague Championship. Milan Doruška, the club president at the time, explained his ambition for the team to ascend the Czech league system.
Dukla Praha's rise through the divisions was unconventional. Whilst still competing in the Prague Championship, the club announced that it had purchased the second division license of Jakubčovice Fotbal. The two teams exchanged places ahead of the 2007–08 season, meaning Dukla Praha began to compete in the country's second tier. In their fourth season in the division, the 2010–11 campaign, Dukla Praha were crowned champions of the Druhá Liga. As a result, they gained promotion to the top level, the Gambrinus Liga, for the first time. In their first campaign in the top tier, Dukla Praha achieved an impressive 6th place finish.
Amongst the team's most notable players are Cameroonian striker Dani Chigou, Slovakian striker Ivan Lietava and Czech midfielders Tomáš Berger and Marek Hanousek.
The team play their home matches at the Stadion Juliska. The venue first opened in 1960 has often been used for athletics events. It was redeveloped in 2001 in order to bring it in line with IAAF regulations. Then, in 2011, it underwent renovations to bring it in line with Gambrinus Liga standards. The stadium is currently able to hold 28,500 spectators.