Greuther Fürth was established in 1903 as part of Turnverein 1860 Fürth, a gymnastics club. By 1906, Greuther Fürth became independent from the gymnastics club as a stand-alone football club. Traditionally, the team's biggest rivals are FC Nuremberg. Matches between the two sides are called the Frankenderby and the rivalry dates back to the very early years of German football. However, prior to the 2012–13 season, the two clubs had not competed in the same league for many years.
In 1996, a small local side called TSV Vestenbergsgreuth merged with Greuther Fürth. Both clubs had played in the third tier of the German league system, but the club finished as runners up the next year, earning promotion to the second flight. At the end of the 2011-12, after a prolonged period in the second tier, the club gained promotion to the Bundesliga for the first time by winning the 2. Bundesliga.
Despite 2012-13 being the club's debut Bundesliga season, the club did enjoy significant success prior to the establishment of the Bundesliga. In fact, in 1914, the club became national champions. The club added two more championship wins in 1926 and 1929 and won south German championships in 1923 and 1931. The team contributed two players to the German World Cup winning squad of 1954 and in 1969, Greuther Fürth became winners of the Intertoto Cup.
Notable former Greuther Fürth players include German internationals like Julius Hirsch, Herbert Erhardt, Heiko Westermann, Karl Mai and Roberto Hilbert, as well as Moroccan international Rachid Azzouzi.
The club plays its home matches at the Trolli Arena, formerly known as the Sportplatz am Ronhofer Weg gegenüber dem Zentral-Friedhof. As a result of the club gaining promotion to the Bundesliga, extra seats were added to the stadium, bringing its current capacity up to 18,500 for league matches.